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Noe. 47, 48, 80. 
















About the time when Luther was engaged in reforming the 
Church of Christ inEurope, a Brahman in Bengal employed himself 
in a similar mission with regard to the religion of the Hindus. 
The European reformer exerted his head and heart to cleanse the 
Church of the manifold corruptions which ages of papai supremacy 
and priestcraft had engrafted on the simple doctrines of the Bible, 
while his Bengal contemporary laboured assiduously to revive 
the neglected theosophy of the Bhagavat. The one inculcated 
the doctrine of justification by faith alone, and the other the mys- 
tery of Bhakti. But the tsourse of the two reformers did not 
run parallel. The monk of Wittenburg commenced and ended 
, a reformer, and his life was devoted most suceessfully to the re- 
demption of Europe from the thraldom of priestcraft, while 
the speculative Brahman early retired from the busy scenes and 
cares of life to meditate in ascetic seclusion on divine love and 
mercy, and his ardent exertions to break through the trammels 
of easte and the despotic influence of the Indian hierarchy servedf 
but to create a system of gloomy mysticism. 

This system is called by its followers the doctrine of BhaktU 
marga or the " translation of faith/' It owes its origin to a disposi- 
tion for metaphysical enquiry operating upon a very ardent and 
enthusiatic temperamen t — to a conflict of doubt and uncertainty 
resulting from a longing of the mind to penetrate deeper into 
those mysterious secrets, the nature and the attributes of the 
Deity, which have often employed, but uniformly baffled, human 
comprehension ; and as the result of such a cause, traces of 
it may be found in some shapc or other in every religion of 


the world. The ancient schools of Greece afford abundant 
evidence of its predominance in the days of Socrates and Plato, 
and the theories of the modern philosophers of Europe are not 
exempt from its mystic tinge. In the Bible many passages occur 
which would afford as good instances of mystic devotion as any 
to be met with in the pastorals of Jayadeva or the poems of 
Rupa Gosw&mi. But the closest resemblanoe to the system is 
borne by the visionary and delusive doctrine of the Sufis. Sir 
William Jones was the first who noticed this analogy, in his 
admirable essay on the mystic poetry of the Persians and Hindus, 
but little has been done since to throw light on the subject. 
It may not be uninteresting, therefore, to place, in juxtaposi- 
tion, the most salient points of the two systems. 

Both the Sufi and the Bhakta alike yearn for communion with 
a beneficent creator, and assume an ardent and enthusiastic 
love for him to be the only means through which that union is 
to be effected. The one is as thorough an optimist as the 
other. The Sufi represents himself «s entirely devoted to the 
search of truth, and perfectly independent of the ordinances of 
the canonical law ; so doth the Bhakta. A blind submission to the 
opinions of the Khalifa is a peculiar characteristic of Sufnsm. 
Its followers " are invited to embark in a sea of doubt under 
the guidanoe of a sacred teacher , whom they are required to deem. 
superior to all other mortals, and worthy of a holy confidence 
that borders upon adoration." With the Bhakta the case is 
still more impressive. "Of all obligations/' says Professor 
Wilson,* " the Guru Pdddsraya, or servile veneration of the spiri- 
tual teacher, is the most important and compulsory, the members 
of this seot not only are required to deliver up themselves and 
every thing valuable to the disposal of the Guru, they are not 
only to entertain fpll belief of the usual Vaishnava tenet, which 
identifies the votary, the teacher and the god, but they are to 
look upon the Guru as one and the present deity, as possessed 
of more authority even than the deity, and as one whose favour 

* EUnda Seets, page 103* 


is more to be courted and whose anger is more to be deprecated, 
than even that of Krishna himself." 

The Sufi knows no distinction of caste, nor does the Bhakta. 
Chaitanya freely admitted Mongols and Patans within the pale 
of his sect, and inrested them with a sanctity which few even of 
bis Brahman followers cotdd venture to assume. " A total dis- 
engagement of the mind from all temporal concerns and worldly 
pursuits," is insisted upon as a sine gua non both by the Sufi 
and the Bhakta, and none can assume the Khirkd or the Kanthd 
without first submitting to this primary condition. Fasts and 
penances are alike despised by both, and yet both pass their lives 
in one eternal round of prirations. They are voluptuaries in 
thought and expression, and allegories andloyesongs and ghazals 
figure prominently in all their writings. Concerts, both vocal and 
instrumental, are their special favourites. Chaitanya repeatedly 
insists upon the miraculous effect of Safikirtana in training the 
mind for divine communion, and devoted much of his time to 
religious singing and dancing. Fainting in ecstatic devotion is ano- 
ther peculiar characteristic common to the two sects, and innu- 
merable instanees are on record of Chaitanya, Munsoor Helaj 
and their followers' swooning away in fits of religious enthusiasm. 
Kor is this peculiarity confined to the great teaehers alone, even 
neophy tes of very moderate pretensions, lay claim to this mark 
of sanctity. 

The Bhaktas believe that in order to the attainment of su- 
preme beatitude, they must pass through five stages or states 
of probation. The first of these is called Santa or quitiesm, 
or a state of calm contemplation of the deity. The second is 
Ddsya or servitude, which in a more active state leads on to 
the third or Sdkhya or friendship, and that in its turn to the 
fourth or Bdtsalya (filial affection,) and lastly to Mddhurya 
or love, when the devotee, rising above all idea of divinity, en- 
tertains the same ardent attachment for the deity which a hu- 
man lover feels for the objectof his love or "what the milkmaids 
of Brindavan entertained for their charming Krishna/' 


. With the Sufi the gradation is similar, but not identical.* He 
has only four states of probation. With him the first is Ndsut 
or humanity, in which the disciple subjecting himself to the 
canons of bis faith, attempts to purify his soul by the practice of 
religion. It may be eompared to the D&sya of the Bhakta. 
The second is Jabrut when, by religious exercises in the preceding 
stage, the devotee attains power to abandon the observances of 
religious forms and ceremonies, as he now exchanges, to use their 
own phrase, " practicai for spiritual worship." Its relation to the 
third stage of the Bhaktas, our Indian Sufis, when they, rising 
above the ordinanoes of the Smriti, profess themselves to be the 
friends of the deity, is evident. The next is a state of knowledge 
(Araf) of which extreme sanctity is the peculiar eharacteristic. 
It has its counterpart in the S&nta of the Vaisnavas. The last 
state of Sufi esceUence is Wasil or union with the deity, and in 
this the Sufis apparently differ firom the Bhaktas. The former, 
adopting the doctrine of the modern Veddntins, believe the 
supreme cause of all to bear the same relation to the human soul 
which the sun does to its rays ; that like unto the solar rays, 
emanations firom the divine soul are continually darted forth and 
re-absorbed, and that this absorption to the primary essence is 
the great end and object of their religion. They hold that when 
in the state of wasil, a Sufi saint hasthoroughly understood the 
relation of his own self to the divinity, he might.with pro- 
priety proclaim of himself, " I am the truth" [An ul haq], just in 
the same way that the Yedantins do the Vedic dogma of Soha- 
mashmiy "lain he ;" " Aham Brahma ;" " I am Brahma/' and 
the like. While the latter maintain that the human soul is dis- 
tinct and radically different firom the Divine one, although pos- 
seasing in some measure its nature, both being uncreate and 
eternal, and that a state of fellowship with the deity in one eternal 
round of divine feHcity, is the highest reward of their religion. 

* See Capt. Graham's paper on the Sufis in Yol. I of the Transactions 
of the Literary Society of Bombay, to which we are indebted for much 
of what is written above of these pantheistic visionaries. 


This difference, however, is more nominal than real; for not- 
withstanding their belief in the doctrine which maintains the 
identity of the diyine and the human «ml, the Sufis are very 
uncertain as to the exact nature of the union they so impassion- 
ately long for. One of the greatest saints of this order, whose 
mystic poetry is held in the highest veneration, Mowlana Jelal- 
ud-din Rumi, has a verse which entirely scouts the idea of actual 
absorption into the deity. He writes : — 

" Now, mystic Lovers ! with strange delight, 
Tb heavenly mansions wing your rapturous flight ; 
Tread, of yon halia august, the marble floor, 
Behold the Etbbnal Faib, and face to face adore." 

The history of Sufism is involved in obscurity ; nothing is 
known of the first promulgators of the system and of its subse- 
quent progress till the time of Sheikh Mohiuddin Ali, who in the 
middle of the llth century published his " Fatuhdt e Mdkki" and 
"Fa#u8 ul Hukam" which have ever since been reckoned as the 
text books of the sect. Allah o bas, " God and nothing else" is 
a favourite dogma of the Sufis, and they ascribe it to Abu Said 
Abui Khair who lived about nine hundred years ago. Some of 
them maintain that Mahommed was the first promulgator of 
their religion, and was himself a Sufi of the highest order. That 
the Frophet of Mecca was greatly aided in the dissemination of 
his religion by a body of ardent enthusiasts, there can be no 
doubt. and that he inculcated many pantheistic doffmas ad- 
mite of proof, but whether they owe II paternity to km or to 
a foreign ^uree, and how fer they assimilate to the doctrine of 
the modern Sufis, are problems which must await further re- 
search for their solution. 

Of the doctrine of Bhakti the earliest record is the Bhagavad. 
Gita in which Krishna maintains the superiority of Faith over 
Knowledge, as a means of salvation. From the Git£ it is to be 
traced to the Sri Bhagavat, where it appears in a high state of 
development and ready to supersede the doctrines of the Yedas 
and the Darsanas. But it does not appear that on its promulga- 


tion in the Purana, it had had any great effect on the established 
religion of the country. Hermits and sages, in their monastic 
seclusion, occasionally indnlged in ita mystic reveries, bnt the 
great body of the Hindus still adhered to the ancient faith. 
Jayadeva in the 8th century embodied, it in his exquisite pas- 
toral on the loves of Krishna and R&dhfi, and seven hundred 
years after him, Chaitanya first inculcated it as a system of prac- 
Ld religion in supercLon of aU established forms of wor- 
ship. The success which attended his exertions was great. 
Within a few short years, thousands hailed him with divine 
honors, and embraced his doctrine with enthusiasm. 

Chaitanya devoted aU his time to pilgrimages, preachings 
and meditations, and never thoaght of committing his opi- 
nions to writing; his disciples, however, have made ample 
amends for this omission on his part. Their writings have 
invested with a halo the religion of their tutor. The works 
of Bapa Gosw&mi, of Jivfi Gosw&mi, of Sanatana and of Kavi- 
karnapura have established a new era in the annals of Sans- 
krita literature, and their influence have, within three centu- 
ries, secured for the religion of Chaitanya upwards of sixteen 
millions of converts. 

Rupa is the author of about a dozen different works, includ- 
ing a drama, several mystic poems of great merit, a collection 
of hymns, and an abridgment of the Bh&gavat. To Jiva is due 
the credit of investing the simple doctrines of Chaitanya with 
the metaphysics of the Ved&nta. The duties and obligations of 
the Bhaktas were systematized by Sanatana, while Krishnad&sa, 
Kavikarnapura and others have, with more than Boswellian 
assiduity, recorded the lives of their teacher and his principal 

Kavikarnapura was bom in the year A. C. 1524. His father, 
a Vaidya of K&nchr&p&r& in the Hooghly district, was a man 
of great influence, and had early ingratiated himself in the 
favour of Chaitanya, by his exertions in securing proselytes, 
and by inviting pilgrims from aU parts of Bengal to the car 


festival of Jagann&tha. He established an image of Krishna- 
r&yaji in his native town, which still continues to be theresort 
of large iitimbers of pilgrims from the neighbouring districts. 

Of the life of Kavikarnapura little seems to be known, 
although as a Sanskrita author of great eminence, his name is 
familiar with the Vaishnavas. His earliest work is the Alaii- 
kara Kaustubha, a treatise on rhetoric, the principles of which 
he was destined to illustrate with remarkable success in his 
after years. His next essay in the field of Sanskrita literature 
was a poem on the life of Chaitanya, but his reputation as a 
writer, however, was not established until after the publication 
of the A'nanda-Vrinddvana Champu, which for richness of style 
and beauty of imagery claims the highest praise. It is written 
in a species of poetical prose of which Macpherson's Ossian 
may be quoted as an example. Its subject is the life of 
Krishna as narrated in the lOth book of the Bh&gavat. 

Snb8equent to the Champu, Kavikar^apura published the 
Krishna-ganoddessa-dipikd, the Gour-ganoddessa-dipikd and the 
Chaitanya Chandrodaya. The last is a historical drama in 10 
acts, and was first represented at the sandal festival of 
Jagann&tha, in the court of R&ja Prataparudra, king of Cuttack* 
It belongs to the class technically termed Ndtaka, and in its 
name and plot is an imitation of the Probodha Chandrodaya^ 
of Kesava Misra. The subject is taken from the Karch& of 
Rupa Gosw&mi; which describes in tedious detail even the most 
trifling incidents in the life of Chaitanya. It may be easily 
supposed that the biography of a hermit unconnected with the 
world f urnishes scanty materials for a ten act play, and accord- 
ingly the Chaitanya Chandrodaya is made up of too many dia- 
logues that lead to nothing, and is peculiarly deficient in unity 
of action. A profusion of alliterations and a gorgeously ornate 
style are also amongst its faults, which considerably detract 
from its merits as an acting drama- — for it would, no doubt, fail, 
in performance, to master the sympathy of a large and promis- 
cuous audience; as the resultofreflected — not of immediate — 


inspiration, it wants that orignal energy that can alooe move a 
popular concourse. But regarded as an ideal drama — a 
series of tableaux vivans presenting faithful portraitures of the 
adored object of a large body of enthusiasts— of one who was 
not 8o much a person as a personified principle, — the work will 
always command the esteem of the lovers of literary worth. 
Nor is this at all inconsistent. We have evidence enough in 
English literature that a work of dramatic power is, inde- 
pendently of theatrical aids, a snfficient basis for literary 
distinction. The unacted dramas of Byron and others, have 
as deeply penetrated the circle of the educated and intelligent, 
as if they had attained the ultimate and gratifying result of 
theatrical representation. 

Kavikarnapura attempts to delineate the life of a speculative 
philosopher— of one whose sole aira was to abstract himself frora 
all carnal enjoyments and to pass a life of pure spirituality— 
of an antipode of Falstaff. Shakspeare paints the latter as a 
strong active intellect, lost in sensuali ty, and embodied in 
gross and corpulent fleshiness — " a huge mass of animal enjoy- 
ment and corporeal appetite ;" while the sketch of the former 
is that of quiet spiritual being enthusiastically in love withhis 
creator, and immersed in intellectual ecstasy, whose abstraction 
from all animal pleasures gives to the emaciated remnantof his 
body an airy lightness, and makes it seem more a shadow than 
a reality. 

The Dramatis Persona of the play are : — 


Chaitanya. — Saint of Nuddea. 

Adwaitya. — An early associate and friend of the former. 

' l-Ministers of Hossein Shah, king of Bengal. 
Rupa. J 

Pratdparudra. — King of Cuttack. 

Sdrvabhoma. — His Pandita. 

Chandanes'wara. — Son of the above. 

Rdmananda. — A Kaestha of Puri. 



^Disciples of Chaitanya. 













Brahmdnanda Bhdrati, 




Tulusi Misra, 

Ndrada. — A saint. 

Kas 1 i Misra. — A brahman of Cuttack. 

Malla Bhaffa. — A Pandita from the king of Karnataka. 

Ratndkara. — A personation of the ocean. 

Vairdgya. — Ditto of Dispassion. 

Kali, — Ditto of Immorality. 

Adharma. — Ditto of Vice. 


Sachi. — Mother of Chaitanya. 

Maitrl Devi. — A personation of Friendship. 

Prema BhaktL — Ditto of Faith. 

Gangd. — Ditto of the River Ganges. . . , t 

The wife of Prataparudra. 

Brahmans, attendants, door-keepers, maids, foreigners, 
fairies, Manager, Actor, Interpreter, soldiers, &c. &c, ■ 

After the usual benediction and prologue, the drama opens 
with a conversation between the etage manager and his com- 
panion, in which the subject of the work is introduced to the 


audience. As it contains an outline of the nature of Bhakti, we 
give it entire. 

(Scene — aplain before the temple of Jaganndtha at Purt.J 

Actob. — Sir, who are these people assembled here ? 

Manager. — The followers of Krishna Cbaitanya. 

Act. — And who is this Chaitanya? 

Manag. — My good fellow, you seem as if you were as yet an 
unborn babe, since you happen not even to have heard the name 
of the great lord, Iisten : 

A wonderfal tree, oalled Cbaitanya, has appeared in this earth. 
Its root is the illustrious Yati M&dhabendra Puri, Aditya is 
its germ, the renowned Abadhuta* is its trunk, and Vakreswara 
and otheys of overflowing faithf form its main branchesj its 
expansion is Sarupa, the exercise of faith forms its flower, and 
its fruit is sincere love for the Deity; its point has pene- 
trated far above the felicitous regions of Brahmfi; whereon 
a braoe of playfdl birds called RacLha and Krishna, J which know 
no difference of feeling, have found a roosting-place ; its shade 
is a sovereign relief for the fatigues to which the way-farers of 
this earth are doomed ; it is the source whence the desires of the 
faithful are obtained* 

Act,—- And what is the use of this incarnation, my learned Sir ? 

Manager, — Listen. Learned sophists, led by the planet of 
thei? own ardent theories, believing in the ancient dogma 
that absorption in a Brahma without attribute and without end, 
is the greatest good, and meditation on the Divine Unit is 
the means of attaining that treasure, do not feel the great truth 
that the great lord S'ri Krishna is Brahma, that he is an 

* Alias Nity ananda. 

t J4t. of juioy body, ffJW!iq<{4s, full of the humour of love, a double 

% B&dh* literally means "adoration i" TT* *T* tf%^T I and Krisan* 
"twe happines»:" they go hand in hand and cannofc be separated. 

Makdbhdrata / Udgoga Parva. 


incarnation of truth, intelligence and felicity, that he possesseth 
divine attributes, is ever playful, and the most beautiful, and that 
his worship, eulogized by sages Sanandana and others, and no where 
reviled, is the highest object of human ambition. Nor do they 
know that the means of obtaining him is Bhakhtiyoga or devotion, 
of which the recitation of his name is the chief, and that these 
are the great secrets of the S'&stras. To disclose the same unto 
mankind has this incarnation of intelligence [Chaitanya], assum- 
ing the form of Chaitanya, made himself manifest. 

Act. — Has this Hari published any work explanatory of his 
principles ? 

Manager. — Though it is well known that the Almighty is the 
aathor of the Vedas, yet the performances of the Omniscient are 
not defined by time, space or agent. 

Act. — Why then do not all mankind embrace his doctrine? 

Manager. — How can men with different desires all betake to 
the same super-eminent path ? Their dispositions impelled by 
their wishes create a variety of opinions. 

Act. — Your Bhakhtiyoga or exercise of devotion, which, you 
say,was unknown to the authors of our S'astras, produces awon^ 
derfid knowledge the result of which is absorption into the 
deity, the same which the professors of the S'astras inculcate, 
where lies then the difference ? 

Manager. — Prom the text which says : — " The recitation of 
the name of the Loved One* produces an enamouration and an 
earnestness which makes him, who adopts this religion, to laugh, 
and cry, and scream, and sing, and dance like a mad man/' it is 
evident that the Bhaktiyoga of which singing the name of 
the lord is a component, produces a peculiar attachment which 
passes on to an excessive fellow-feeling. It is also said, 
" such truthful beingsf perceive me to be of pleaaing and 
of benignly smihng — of gratifying and excessively beautiful 
— forms, with rosy eyes, and talk to me in sweet soothing 
words. Devotion by the aid of those charming forms and in- 

* The Deity. f Bhaktas. 


Bocently playful and smiling glances and pleasing speech, robs them 
of their mind and soul, and leads them on unto salvation, against 
their will."* From which you see that salvation is a state of fel- 
lowship with the Deity and not absorption; therefore has the 
venerable Kapila said : " devotion is superior to sanctification ;" 
and hence, is the singing of the name of the lord, in the Kali 
Yuga, no seoondary means towards the attainment of the great 
object of human existence, and the source of heavenly love. 

Act. — Sir, your words are most wonderful. The S'&stras 
ordain that the name of the Lord leads to absorption and you 
maintain the contrary. We have heard, " by reciting the name 
of N&rfiyana the dying Aj&mila obtained mukti." 

Manager {smiling). — Mukti here means fellowship, for in that 
very place it is said : " He immediately assumed the shape of the 
companions of the deity." This doctrine of Krishna Chaitanya 
overthrows all others. Ali righteous men adopt this doctrine. 
Even Kali himself is blessed by this incarnation. 

Act. — How so ? Has not Kali been reviled thus : 

" In the Iron age, O king, men, becoming of heretical and 
divided opinions, worship not the great Lord of the Universe, 
the Almighty Achyuta, on whose lotus feet bow down the lords 
of the three regions." 

Manager. — That refers to some other Kali in which there 
has been no incarnation of Krishna. Otherwise, 

" In mercy to those faithful beings who will be born in the 
Kali Yuga, He displayed his holy career, which assuages pain 
and grief and dissolves darkness. 

" O king, in the Kali Yuga mankind will be the followers of 
Nar&yana; men of the Satya and other ages will long to be 
born in the Kali Yuga." 

And such other verses, prophecying the incarnation of Chai- 
tanya, would be inconsisteut. 


• «k 


Act.— Cto not Kali frustrate the wishes of those aspirants ? 

Manager. — Cau that raoon, which is daily wasting, obstruct 
the ligbt of the heavenly luminaries during the wane ?* 

(Behind the scene.) Who is it that reviling me, turns up to 
the moon ? 

Manager. — (Looking carefully around.J Behold, my good 
Sir, jus t while we are speakiog, here comes he, a monster 
of wrath and a stranger to mercy, having his favourite com- 
panion Adharma by his side: we had better now retire. — - 


K&li (Immorality) and Adharma (Vice) next enter the stage, 
and in a protracted conversation narrate the history of Chai* 
tanya frora his birth to the time when he adopted the life of 
an ascetic, including an account of the miraculous manner in 
which he converted Jag&i and Madhai, two of his most inve- 
terate opponents, to his doctrine. In the third scene the 
followers of the Nadia* Saint publicly invest him with the 
rights of a divine tutor, and a very miscellaneous conversation 
then follows on his miracles and his precepts. 

The second Act opens with a dialogue, betweeh Bhakti and 
Bair&gya, on the errors and imperfections of the different In- 
dian systems of religion and on the excelleuce of faith as a 
means of salvation, in course of which the former points out 
how Chaitanya exerted his utmost to break through the thral- 
dom of caste^ how he admitted Mahomedans into his sect, 
how he metamorphosed himself into various shapes for the 
gratification of his followers, how he cured a leper by his 
touch, and afforded a variety of other proofs of his divine mis- 
sion. Chaitanya next appears and displays his super-humau 
power by manifesting himself in the mind of his friend 
Adwaita in the form of Krishna. 

In the third Act Maitri and Premabhakti describe the na- 

* This verse is a double entendre and might be translated as under, 
hence its applicability. " The source of evil daily decreases by them wbo 
are followers of Krishpa. How can it frustrate those who bave obtained 
the protection of Vishnu's feet ?'• 


ture and course of Bhakti, and allude to a theatrical exhibi- 
tion in the house of one A'ch&rya llatna ia which Chaitanya 
took a part ; the scene then shifts to the house of the Acharya, 
where they observe the play in which Chaitanya enacts the 
part of Infant Krishna claiming the right of being worshipped 
as the Lord of the Gopas, by the milk maids of Brindavana. 

The fourth Act describes the circumstances which attended 
his adoption of the life of a herrait, the fifth and the sixth his 
progress from Nadi& to Jagannath, including a variety of 
incidents illustrative of the benign influence of his religion. 
The seventh, eighth and ninth acts record his sayings and 
doings, during his peregrinations in the Dekkan, Bengal, 
Benares, Allahabad, and Brindavana, his reception in those 
places, his preachings and the conversion by him of Rupa and 
San&tana, ministers of Hossein Shah, king of Bengal ; the 
tenth Act closes the play by reuniting Chaitanya with his 
favourite desciples in Jagann&tha. In som e MSS. an epilogne 
follows which states the date of the work to be Saka 1494= 
1573 A. C. 

The work is scarce in Calcutta. I could obtain the use of 
only three MSS. in carrying the following pages throiigh 
the press. Of these one belongs to the Library of the Asiatic 
Society (No. 29, Sanskrita CatalogueJ and the other two to 
private collections. They are all of very modern date and 
written in the Bengali character. Their correctness, however, 
has been acknowledged by several distinguished Sanskrita 
scholars whom I have had occasion to consult. 

Of the principles inculcated in the Chaitanya Chandrodaya, 
which is generally acknowledged to be an excellent specimen of 
the Bhakti literature of the Hindus, we need say nothing further. 
The reader will have been enabled, by the preceding remarks, 
and still more by onr extract, to form a judgment of the mystic 
doctrine. He will perceive that, although the discordant mate- 
rials of the Puranas have been put together with much skill in 
order to produce a system that should unite in one body, the 
metaphysical refinement of the Ved&nta with the idolatries of 


mediseval Hinduism, it does not propose to itself the highest 
objects of social improvement — that it is more calculated to 
produce a " hypertrophy of the religious feelings," than a healthy 
heart-felt veneration for the great Father of the nniverse — 
that it is more suited to the temper of lazy monks than the 
requirements of hdnest citizens. He will discover, also that Suf lism 
is the result of the same process of thinking and of the same 
state of the religious feelings, which are the causes of Bhaktiism, 
and bears to it a family likeness, such as would afford strong 
primd facie evidence of its Indian origin. Sir William Jones 
was led, from a study of its pecnliar characters, to attribute its 
paternity to Vaishnavism ; Capt. Graham traces it to the pan- 
theism of the S&nkhya, and Malcolm and others have pointed 
out its resemblance to the doctrine of the later Ved&ntins. 
While others again regard it as " a disease of the mind, which 
attacks every nation as soon as it has passed the meridian of its 
grandeur/'* and deny its Brahmanic parentage. We do not 
intend, however, to enter here into a discussion of the question, 
for at present, we think, there is scarcely data sufficiently ex- 
plicit and harmonious in their evidence to afford a satisfac* 
tory solution. 

Soorah, ISth May, 1854. 

* Sprenger's Istalldhdt Sufid, p. 1. 


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